Challenging the Medicalization of Sex




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For Further Reading on the New View

Articles and Book Chapters Integrating The New View:
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  • Anderson, M.  (2005)
    Is lack of sexual desire a disease? Is testosterone the cure? Medscape Ob/Gyn & Women's Health.
  • Andrikopoulou, L., Michala, S. M. Creighton & L-M. Liao   (2013)
    Overview of normal vulva in medical textbooks with acknowledgment of work of New View Campaign. J. Obstetrics and Gynecology, v. 33, p. 646-650
  • Angel, Katherine  (2013)
    Commentary on Spurgas's "Interest, Arousal, and Shifting Diagnoses of Female Sexual Dysfunction "Studies in Gender and Sexuality, v. 14 #3.
  • Angel, Katherine  (2010)
    The history of ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ as a mental disorder in the 20th century. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23(6): 536–541.
  • Angel, Katherine  (2012)
    Contested psychiatric ontology and feminist critique ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. History of the Human Sciences October 2012 vol. 25 no. 4 3-24, Overview of the entire FSD story.
  • Ashong, Ashong C.; Batta, Herbert E.  (2013)
    Sensationalising the Female Pudenda: An Examination of Public Communication of Aesthetic Genital Surgery. Global Journal of Health Science, V. 5 # 2, p153-165. Focus on promotion for cosmetic genital surgery in Africa and work of New View Campaign.
  • Bancroft, J, Loftus, J, & Long, J S.  (2003)
    Distress about sex: A national survey of women in heterosexual relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32: 193-208
  • Bellamy G., Gott, M., Hinchliff, S  (2013)
    Women's understandings of sexual problems: findings from an in-depth interview study, Journal of Clinical Nursing. Women's narratives corroborate New View approach, stressing context over physical response.
  • Bethany Amber Jones  (2014)
    PHD dissertation - Australian National University. The curious case of the designer vagina. Genital satisfaction, pornography and self-objectification: an empirical investigation. Is FGCS motivated by porn exposure? Several studies and analysis.
  • Braun, V & Tiefer, L  (2010)
    The "Designer Vagina" and the pathologisation of female genital diversity: Interventions for change. Radical Psychology, vol 8, issue 1.
  • Cacchioni, Thea  (2007)
    Heterosexuality and 'the labour of love': A contribution to recent debates on female sexual dysfunction. Sexualities, 10(3): 299-320.
  • Cacchioni, Thea & Tiefer, Leonore (Eds)  (2012)
    Special Issue of the Journal of Sex Research on The Medicalization of Sex, contains 8 theoretical articles plus an introduction. Giami, A & Perrey, C. Transformations in the medicalization of SEX: HIV prevention between discipines and biopolitics. O'Riordan, Kate. The life of the gay gene: From hypothetical genetic marker to social reality. Polzer, JC & Knabe, SM From Desire to Disease: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and the Medicalization of Nascent Female Sexuality Marshall, BL. Medicalization and the Refashioning of Age-Related Limits on Sexuality Farrell, J & Cacchioni, T. The Medicalization of Women's Sexual Pain Segal, Judy Z. The Sexualization of the Medical Tiefer, Leonore. Medicalizations and Demedicalizations of Sexuality Therapies Tone, Andrea. Medicalizing Reproduction: The Pill and Home Pregnancy Tests
  • Cotton, A.  (2003)
    The impact of a human sexuality college course according to gender: Comparisons of the 1970's and the 1990's. Sex Education, 3, (3), 271-280.
  • Drew, J.  (2003)
    The myth of female sexual dysfunction and its medicalization. Sexualities, Evolution & Gender, 5, 89-96.
  • Emily Wentzell  (2017)
    "How did erectile dysfunction become 'natural'? A review of the critical social science research on medical treatment for male sexual dysfunction." Annual Review of Sex Research which is part of the Journal of Sex Research. New View voices and sources figure prominently.
  • Etaugh, C  (2013)
    Chapter on "Women and sexuality in the middle and later years" by Claire Etaugh in The Essential Handbook of Women's Sexuality edited by Donna Castaneda. Describes how New View approach better fits women's reports..
  • Fishman Jennifer R  (2007)
    Making Viagra: From Impotence to Erectile Function. In Andrea Tone and Elizabeth Siegel Watkins (eds) Medicating Modern America: Prescription drugs in history. New York: NYU Press (pp. 229-252)
  • Fishman, J.  (2004)
    Manufacturing desire: The commodification of Female sexual Dysfunction. Social Studies of Science, 34, 187-218.
  • Goberna, J, Frances, L, Pauli, A, et al  (2009)
    Sexual experiences during the climacteric years: What do women think about it? Maturitas, 62: 47-52.
  • Grace, V Potts, A Gavey, N & Vares T  (2006)
    The Discursive Condition of Viagra. Sexualities, 9: 295-314
  • Graham, C. A.  (2010)
    The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, (2), 240-255
  • Graham, C. A., Sanders, S. A., Milhausen, R. R., & McBride, K. R.  (2004)
    Turning on and turning off: A focus group study of the factors that affect women's sexual arousal. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33, 527-538
  • Hartley, H.  (2006)
    The 'pinking' of Viagra culture: Drug industry efforts to create and repackage sex drugs for women. Sexualities, 9, 363-378.
  • Hartley, H. & Tiefer, L.  (2003)
    Taking a biological turn: The push for a "female Viagra" and the medicalization of women's sexual problems. Women's Studies Quarterly, 31, 42-54.
  • Henderson, AW, Lehavot, K, and Simoni, JM  (2009)
    Ecological models of sexual satisfaction among lesbian/bisexual and heterosexual women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38: 50-65.
  • Hicks, K. M.  (2006)
    Online CME course on "The New View Approach to Women's Sexual Problems." Medscape.
  • Hogenmiller, A. and Fugh-Berman, A.  (2018)
    "Addyi Rises Again." Update with links to the Addy/flibanserin story since 2015, when the drug was reluctantly approved by FDA. Sold to Valeant, then sold back to Cindy Whitehead, now Cindy Eckert, a marketing whiz who has all sorts of promotional tricks up her VERY PINK sleeve.
  • Hyde, A, Nee, J, Drennan, J, Butler, M & Howlett, E.  (2011)
    Women’s Accounts of Heterosexual Experiences in the Context of Menopause. International Journal of Sexual Health, 23, Issue 3. In-depth interviews with menopausal Irish women supports contextual perspective of sexual drive and satisfaction.
  • Jinai Ashline and Kimberly McKay  (2017)
    "Content Analysis of Patient Voices at the FDA's ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction Patient-Focused Drug Development Public Meeting’" In Culture and Sexuality. New View members' analysis of 2014 FDA meeting on FSD featuring New View speakers.
  • Kaplan, I. J.  (2005)
    Teaching a New View of Women's Sexual Problems. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 1, 195-200. Describes New View teaching manual activities
  • Katz, A.  (2007)
    Sexuality counseling (chapter 22, pp.235-237). In Breaking the Silence on Cancer and Sexuality: A handbook for healthcare providers. Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society.
  • Kew, Melissa  (2011)
    Sociological Theroires of and Research on Sexual Problems: A Review of the Literature. UCLA Papers on Thinking Gender. Overview of diagnoses and theories with lots of attention to New View works.
  • King, Michael, Holt, Victoria, and Nazareth, Irwin  (2007)
    Women's views of their sexual difficulties: Agreement and disagreement with clinical diagnoses. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36: 281-288.
  • Koch, P., Mansfield, P. K., Thurau, D. & Carey, M.  (2005)
    "Feeling frumpy": The relationships between body image and sexual response changes in midlife women. Journal of Sex Research, 42: 215-223.
  • Leanne Nicholls  (2005)
    Constructing Female Sexuality: How Heterosexual Women's Accounts of Sex and Sexual Difficulties Correspond with Contemporary Classification Systems for Female Sexual Problems. PhD thesis, University of East London. Study compares New View and DSM classification systems in light of women's self reported sexual problems. New View fits women's self reports better.
  • Leonore Tiefer, Ellen Laan & Rosemary Basson  (2015)
    Journal of Sex Research, "Missed Opportunities in the patient-focused drug development public meeting and scientific workshop on FSD at the FDA, October, 2014"
  • Liebert, R. Leve, M & Hui, A.  (2011)
    The Politics and Possibilities of Activism in Contemporary Feminist Psychologies. Feminism & Psychology. vol. 35 no. 4 697-704. Describes 3 years of activist projects in the New View Campaign.
  • Loe, M.  (2004)
    The search for the female Viagra (Ch. 5). In The rise of Viagra: How the little blue pill changed sex in America. New York: New York University Press.
  • Malone J  (2013)
    Women and genital cosmetic surgery. Women's Health Issues Paper from Women's Health Victoria Melbourne. Extensive report with full bibliography including the academic and activist work of the New View Campaign.
  • Marshall, B. L.  (2006)
    The new virility: Viagra, male aging, and sexual function. Sexualities, 9, 345-362.
  • McHugh, Maureen C.  (2006)
    What do women want? A new view of women's sexual problems. Sex Roles (54) 361-369.
  • McHugh, Maureen C.  (2006)
    Women and sex at midlife: Desire, dysfunction and diversity. In Varda Muhlbauer and Joan C. Chrisler (Eds) Women over 50: Psychological Perspectives. Springer, pp 26-52.
  • Mintz, Laurie  (2014)
    Psychology Today blog about placebo responses in sex drug research, with mention of good New View position.
  • Mintzes, BM, Tiefer, L , Cosgrove, L  (2020)
    Approval of both flibanserin and bremelanotide were based on shady publicity and clinical trials. However, regulatory precedent makes each successive drug less likely to receive careful scrutiny. "Bremelanotide and flibanserin for low sexual desire in women: the fallacy of regulatory precedent" Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, 2021.
  • Mitchell, Kirstin & Graham, Cynthia  (2008)
    Two Challenges for the Classification of Sexual Dysfunction. J. Sexual Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 7, pages 1552–1558.
  • Mollen, Debra & Stabb, Sally  (2010)
    Women's sexuality and meaning making. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 23: 295–320, 2010. Metaphor as way to express complexity and fluidity. Credits New View approach as offering relevant theory.
  • Moran, Claire and Lee, Christina  (2013)
    Selling cosmetic surgery to healthy women: a multimodal discourse analysis of Australian surgical websites. Deconstruction of current websites that promote FGCS, showing how they normalize unnecessary surgical intervention. Critical Discourse Studies
  • Moynihan, R.  (2003)
    The making of a disease: Female sexual dysfunction. British Medical Journal, 326, 45-47.
  • Moynihan, R.  (2005)
    The Marketing of a Disease: Female sexual dysfunction. British Medical Journal, 330, 192-194.
  • Moynihan, R., & Cassels, A.  (2005)
    Subverting the selling: Female sexual dysfunction (Chapter 10). In Selling sickness: How the world's biggest pharmaceutical companies are turning us all into patients. New York: Nation Books.
  • Moynihan, Ray & Mintzes, Barbara  (2010)
    Sex, Lies and Pharmaceuticals: How drug companies plan to profit from female sexual dysfunction. Vancouver: Greystone Books. Expose of entire saga of FSD and Big Pharma. Many pages and stories focus on the New View Campaign.
  • Nicholls Leanne  (2008)
    Putting the New View Classification Scheme to an Empirical Test. Feminism & Psychology, 18, 4: 515-526. Classification scheme corroborated by women's own descriptions of their problems
  • Nicolson, Paula and Burr, Jennifer  (2003)
    What is ‘normal’ about women's (hetero)sexual desire and orgasm?: a report of an in-depth interview study Social Science & Medicine, Volume 57, Issue 9, Pages 1735-1745
  • Peplau, Letitia Anne  (2003)
    Human Sexuality: How Do Men and Women Differ? Current Directions in Psychological Science, April 2003, vol. 12 no. 2 37-40. New View Campaign described as offering new contextualized approach to understanding women's sexuality.
  • Plante, R. F.  (2006)
    Screwing with sex: Some politics of sexualities (Ch. 9). In Sexualities in context: A social perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Pomerance, L.  (2006)
    Sexuality (Ch. 9). In Boston Women's Health Collective (Ed.), Our bodies, ourselves: Menopause. New York: Touchstone.
  • Pomerance, Lenore  (2014)
    "I'll have what he's having: The Search for a Female Viagra" in Voices: The art and science of psychotherapy, Spring, 2014, P 53-60.
  • Potts, A.  (2004)
    Deluze on Viagra (Or, what can a 'Viagra-body' do?). Body & Society, 10, 17-36.
  • Potts, A. & Tiefer, L. (Eds).  (2006)
    Viagra culture. Special Issue of Sexualities, 9(3).
  • Potts, A., Gavey, N., Grace, V. M., & Vares, T.  (2003)
    The downside of Viagra: Women's experiences and concerns. Sociology of Health & Illness, 25, 697-719.
  • Potts, A., Grace, V., Gavey, N., & Vares, T.  (2004)
    Viagra stories: Challenging 'erectile dysfunction'. Social Science & Medicine, 59: 489-499.
  • Potts, A., Grace, V., Gavey, N., & Vares, T.  (2006)
    'Sex for life'? Men's counter-stories of 'erectile dysfunction', male sexuality and aging. Sociology of Health & Illness, 28(3): 306-329.
  • Potts, A., Grace, V., Gavey, N., & Vares, T.  (2004)
    Viagra stories: Challenging 'erectile dysfunction'. Social Science & Medicine, 59: 489-499.
  • Potts, Annie  (2008)
    The Female Sexual Dysfunction Debate: Different "Problems," New Drugs - More Pressures? In Pamela Moss and Katherine Teghtsoonian (Eds.) Contesting Illness: Processes and Practices (University of Toronto Press), Pp. 259-280.
  • Pronier, Cristalle & Monk-Turnera, Elizabeth  (2014)
    Factors shaping women's sexual satisfaction: a comparison of medical and social models, including New View work. Qualitative study of 311 women. Results show that social factors explain more of the variation in sexual satisfaction than sexual dysfunction alone J. Gender Studies, V. 23, P 69-80.
  • Rachel Hills  (2015)
    New book, The Sex Myth, challenges many of the same myths as The New View and mentions the Campaign several times.
  • Raskin, Jonathan  (2018)
    Section of Abnormal Psychology textbook devoted to New View model and ideas. It begins "The New View, a feminist and humanistic social justice perspective, combines scholarship and social activism in challenging what its supporters see as a problematic tendency to treat women’s sexual dysfunctions as strictly medical (rather than interpersonal and social) problems" In another paragraph, it emphasizes, "Importantly, the New View approach sees most sexual complaints as traceable to social, political, psychological, and relational factors, even while leaving room for some sexual issues to be medically based. Also note how the New View identifies sexual problems rather than sexual disorders—a clear attempt to move away from a strictly medical model, a move that excites many New View-sympathetic clinicians."
  • Rohden, Fabiola  (2009)
    Gender differences and the medicalization of sexuality in the creation of sexual dysfunctions diagnosis. Translated from Revista Estudos Feministas, Florianopolis, v.17, n.1, p. 89-109, Jan./Apr. 2009.
  • Rutherford, Alexandra; Capdevila, Rose; Undurti, Vindhya; & Palmary, Ingrid (Eds)  (2011)
    Joan Chrisler and Maureen McHugh's chapter on US perspectives in the Handbook of International Feminisms: Perspectives on Psychology, Women, Culture, and Rights has a very nice section on the New View as an important piece of the current feminist psychology story.
  • Segal, Judy Z.  (2018)
    Sex, drugs, and rhetoric: The case of flibanserin for ‘female sexual dysfunction. Social Studies of Science, 1-24. This essay is an account of persuasive strategies used on, and by, the FDA in 2015, as it considered approving a drug that was not convincingly either safe or effective. The essay looks at three texts: the ‘Even the Score’ pro-drug campaign that informed a 2014 patient-focused meeting, the text of the meeting itself, and the FDA’s own published report of the event. I describe how a pharmaceutical company (Sprout, then owners of flibanserin) recruited, and then ventriloquized, both health professionals and members of the public to pressure the FDA to approve a sex drug for women – claiming that not to do so was evidence of sexism. I argue, with rhetorical evidence, that the case for approving flibanserin had already been won before Sprout submitted its application.
  • Sims, Karen E & Meana, Marta  (2010)
    Why Did Passion Wane? A Qualitative Study of Married Women's Attributions for Declines in Sexual Desire. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, Vol 36, 360-380. Open-ended interviews with 19 married women who had lost desire in their marriage focussed on contextual causes in support of New View theory.
  • Spurgas, Alyson K.  (2013)
    Interest, Arousal, and Shifting Diagnoses of Female Sexual Dysfunction, or: How Women Learn About Desire. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, v. 14 #3. Alexandra Symonds Prize Essay.
  • Stelzl, M., & Stairs, B.  (2014)
    Book chapter, "The construction of sexuality knowledge in human sexuality textbooks". In A. Pilinska & H. Siganporia (Eds.), All Equally Real: Femininities and Masculinities Today (pp.279-293). Oxfordshire: Inter-disciplinary Press. Assessment of sexuality models (incl New View) in sexuality textbooks.
  • Tambling, RB; Neustifter, R; Muska, C; Reckert, A; Rua, S  (2012)
    Pleasure-centered educational program: A comprehensive approach to pleasure-oriented sexuality education in domestic violence shelters. International Journal of Sexual Health, 24:267–289, 2012. Women in a domestic violence shelter in Georgia benefit from New View oriented sexuality education.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2010)
    Activism on the medicalization of sex and female genital cosmetic surgery by the New View Campaign in the United States. Reproductive Health Matters, V. 18, No. 35, 56-63. Overview article about 10 years of Campaign.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2002)
    Beyond the medical model of women's sexual problems: A campaign to resist the promotion of 'female sexual dysfunction.' Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 17,127- 135.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2003)
    Taking back women's sexuality. In the Family. 8, 14-17.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2003)
    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD): Witnessing social construction in action. Sexuality, Evolution, and Gender, 5, 33-35.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2003)
    A recent debate on whether female sexual dysfunction is a pharmaceutical industry creation. British Medical Journal electronic rapid response. July 12, 2003.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2003)
    The Pink Viagra story. Radical Philosophy, # 121, 2-5.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2004)
    Challenging the new medicalization of women's sexual problems. (in German. Offensive gegen die Medikalisierung weiblicher Sexualbrobleme) Familiendynamik, 2(2), 121-138.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2005)
    (September, 26) Omissions, Biases, and Nondisclosed Conflicts of Interest: Is There a Hidden Agenda in the NAMS Position Statement? Medscape General Medicine, Contemporary Issues in Ob/Gyn & Women's Health.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2006)
    Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Case Study of Disease Mongering and Activist Resistance. Public Library of Science Med 3(4): e178. journal.pmed.0030178
  • Tiefer, L.  (2006)
    The Viagra phenomenon. Sexualities. 9: 273-294
  • Tiefer, L.  (2006)
    Online CME course on "A New View Approach to Men's Sexual Problems." Medscape.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2007)
    Sex and disease-mongering: A special case? Monash Bioethics Review. 25, 28-35.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2000)
    The medicalization of women's sexuality: There's a new market, but who will benefit? American J. Nursing, 100, 11.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2001)
    The selling of 'female sexual dysfunction'. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 27, 625-628.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2001)
    A new view of women's sexual problems: Why new? Why now? Journal of Sex Research, 38, 89-96.
  • Tiefer, L.  (2002)
    Arriving at a "new view" of women's sexual problems Background, analysis, activism. Women & Therapy, 24, 63-98.
  • Tiefer, L. (Ed.)  (2008)
    Special Issue of Feminism and Psychology on the New View Campaign against the Medicalization of Sex. Includes TWELVE papers on historical, theoretical, empirical, media, and application perspectives using the New View. Feminism and Psychology, November, 2008, vol 18 no 4.
  • Tiefer, L., Tavris, C. & Hall, M.  (2002)
    Beyond dysfunction: A new view of women's sexual problems. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 225 232.
  • Tiefer, Leonore  (2010)
    Still resisting after all these years: an update on sexuo-medicalization and on the New View Campaign to challenge the medicalization of women's sexuality. exual and Relationship Therapy, 25, 2: 189-196.
  • Tiefer, Leonore & Hall, Marny  (2010)
    Chapter 7 in Sandra R. Leiblum (ed.) Treating Sexual Desire Disorders: A Clinical Casebook (2010) Guilford Press. "A skeptical view of desire norms promotes success." (P114-132). Includes the Classification system from the manifesto plus lengthy discussion and a case discussion.
  • Vares, T., & Braun, V.  (2006)
    Spreading the word, but what word is that? Viagra and male sexuality in popular culture. Sexualities, 9, 315-332.
  • Weinberger, JM, Houman, J, Caron, AT, Patel, D, Baskin, AS, Ackerman, AL, Eilber, KS, and Anger, JT  (2018)
    Female Sexual Dysfunction and the Placebo Effect: A Meta-analysis. This meta-analysis of Level I evidence demonstrates that 67.7% of the treatment effect for female sexual dysfunction is accounted for by placebo. Our findings suggest that the current treatments for female sexual dysfunction are, overall, minimally superior to placebo, which emphasizes the ongoing need for more efficacious treatment for female sexual dysfunction. In Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2018.
  • Whelehan, P and Bolin, A. (Senior Eds)  (2015)
    There are 2 entries in the 3 volume International Encyclopedia of Sexuality that mention the New Campaign: the entry on Sexuopharmaceuticals (by Thea Cacchioni) and the entry on Sexual Arousal (by Kristen Mark and Debby Herbenick).
  • Wood, J., Koch, P., & Mansfield, P.  (2006)
    Women's sexual desire: A feminist critique. Journal of Sex Research, 43, 236-244.
  • Working Group on a New View of Women's Sexual Problems  (2004)
    A New View of Women's Sexual Problems (Ch. 29). In P. J. Kaplan & L. Cosgrove (Eds.), Bias in psychiatric diagnosis. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.